6. Robustness in biological circuits

Design principles

  • The on-delay of the C1-FFL is robust to changes in the ratio of the Hill activation constants, \(\kappa\), in the regime when \(\kappa\) is order one or greater.

  • Exact adaptation, such as that displayed by the chemotaxis circuit in E. coli, can be achieved through integral feedback.


  • Michaelis-Menten kinetics to model enzyme dynamics.


  • Robustness.

  • Exact adaptation.

import numpy as np
import scipy.integrate

import biocircuits

import bokeh.io
import bokeh.plotting

import panel as pn